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About Mayanca

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  1. Sharks' hunting ability destroyed under climate change University of Adelaide The hunting ability and growth of sharks will be dramatically impacted by increased CO2 levels and warmer oceans expected by the end of the century, a University of Adelaide study has found. Journal Scientific Reports
  2. Unfortunately, humans are responsible for over fishing many species to the point where their populations cannot be sustained. At the present rate of catch and bycatch the oceans are losing. We watched BBC film an episode about overfishing while in Puerto Jimenez in June. There are so many fisheries that have collapsed or are collapsing because of overfishing..the anchoveta in Peru, the sardines in Central California coast, Pacific salmon, blue fin tuna, Orange Ruffy, etc. Shrimp trawlers scrape the sea bed and leave it barren. What we call resources are finite, and even with the variety
  3. Absolutely right Lucybelle, about eating or encouraging shark sales. Unfortunately, people do mistakenly sometimes buy shark miss labeled. Shark finning is outrageous, and has to be stopped. Killing off top predators has many unintended consequences for Earth.
  4. This is a major problem everywhere...fish is mislabled. A lot of shark is sold as swordfish. Rockfish in California is sold as Red Snapper. Many fish in restaurants in Costa Rica are called Corvina and Dorado...they could be anything. In the US there have been lots of investigations about mislabled fish. In Costa Rica, as elsewhere, unless you buy a whole fish, you are taking your chances. If the spine in the example you described seems more like cartillage (softer, more friable, and simpler looking) than bone, it is probably shark...I try to by fish in Costa Rica directly from the fis
  5. Truly; Now I will have to watch the fruit fly larvae in my compost bucket to see if they escape as a swarming mass or as uncoordinated individuals.
  6. Thank you for that! Those larvae must be very tiny if they are the offspring of gnats. If that is the case I would think they might attract rather than repel predators...but in any case it is certainly fascinating, and an experiment could easily be designed to test opposing hypotheses. Lincoln Brower long ago tested the palatability of monarch caterpillars with jays and had very interesting results. This topic has been a lot of fun.
  7. I just post this to demonstrate that this topic is very complex and diverse..each species of toxic amphibian and even populations and individuals are different in their biochemistry. I was just thinking that being careful and thoughtful is more functional than being fearful. Some of the same people we know also teach their children to be afraid of dogs. Answer to question..... always best to be cautious if you are able.... The chemistry of poisons in amphibian skin by J.W Daly Proceedings of National Academy of Science AbstractPoisons are common in nature, where they often serve
  8. For awhile, it was quite faddish to lick Bufo marinus toads, as supposedly it caused the lickers to get high. We do have lots of toads, but never have had any incidents with dogs, toddlers, or drug seeking adolescents. Where we live, the poison dart frogs are quite secretive, and it would be very very rare for a toddler to encounter one...I studied in Costa Rica with Jay Savage, who wrote the book on Costa Rican Reptiles and Amphibians, and he never ever said a word about being careful when handling a poison dart frog.I think it requires more than a casual contact to do any sort of damage.
  9. Unfortunately, I do know too many people who are afraid of frogs, toads, bats, and even geckos, because of what they have been taught. I have handled virtually every sort of frog and toad in Costa Rica with no adverse effects. This as an OTS student and later teaching Natural History courses in Costa Rica and elsewhere in the tropics. Of course, you are not supposed to lick the Bufo marinus toads or rub your eyes after handling the poison dart frogs, but there is no reason to be afraid of them. (One rare toad in Colombia shouldn't be touched, but it is an exception) Its best to leave them a
  10. I too looked up millipede swarm and what I saw was not anything organized...just random hordes....going in all directions. Anyone seen a water opossum? Friends just back from Corcovado saw them...Amazing creatures with duck-like back feet..found a great video showing them swimming under water...
  11. They could be millipedes...the photo just isn't clear enough to tell for sure...I have only seen this behavior in butterfly /moth larvae, so it certainly would be interesting to get a closer photo...since these guys appear totally harmless, no harm in picking one up and looking at the number of true legs....
  12. This is what swallowtail caterpillars look like at rest on a mandarin tree...They use more than one type of predator defense.. camouflage, mass protection, and nasty taste. Other groups of butterfly and moth larvae are coral snake mimics, bird poop mimics, mimics of toxic insects, covered with urticating hairs, full of cardiac glycosides, all sorts of fabulous defenses. And then....most amazing, they morph into beautiful butterflies and moths.
  13. An interesting topic for the nerds amongst us. http://www.wired.com/2013/07/why-are-these-caterpillars-climbing-over-each-other-the-surprising-science-behind-the-swarm/ This experiment shows that the swarm of caterpillars moves faster than does an individual caterpillar...brings me way back to my childhood when I raised caterpillars in my bedroom...nerd heaven.
  14. Some species of butterfly larvae...caterpillars...spend time resting on tree trunks in a mass. When they migrate from tree to tree will do a group swarm move. Citrus trees are hosts for swallowtail caterpillars, and they exhibit this behavior. It most likely is a defense against potential predators...the caterpillars are distasteful in general or have some distastefu organs that they extrude when disturbed. Swallowtail caterpillars have stinky antennae-like glands that are extruded when they feel threatened. The caterpillars may be quite well camouflaged while at rest. Your photo looks much
  15. Is it a palm or a cycad? From the photos, it looks like a cycad...they are surprisingly hardy, although sometimes the outer leaves do die off. Keeping it clean and replanted should help...we had something similar on another type of indoor plant, and repeated washing of the leaves and cutting back all the old leaves and stems did finally work.
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